By Rig Svenson 2005
known as Heaven's Edgel
Where Heimðallr, they say,
is master of all men;
There the guardian of the gods
sups in his hall
With gladness the good honey mead.
created for RS “Little Bones” by Christopher Bell
article is presented to provoke insight and give clarity about this
enigmatic and little understood courageous heroic figure of the
the god who was born of nine mothers (the waves of the sea), is said
to have been the father of all the castes of humankind. There is a Rig
lay, telling a tale in which he fathers the three castes of men. He
does not create human beings; rather he fathers sons from the three
primal couples. It is through
that all human beings can claim to have the genes of the gods running
through them. Until this occurred human beings were just like the
other animals of this planet. We are equal now because the lower caste
and the highest caste have been abolished; we are all children of
our family the Aesir and Vanir collectively called the Tivar.
The Sources for Heimðallr
are three main sources which tells us about the god Heimðallr, namely
Gylfaginning (The Deluding of Gylfi) taken from the Younger
or Prose Edda, Skáldskaparmál (The Poesy of the Skalds) and the
possible relegation to sentinel status may have possibly been due to a
result of betrayal of trust or accrued cognitive power in compensation
for the loss of some bodily faculty?
27. I know of
the horn of
Under the high-reaching holy tree;
On it there pours from Valfather's pledge
A mighty stream: would you know yet more?
46. Fast move
the sons of Mim, and fate
Is heard in the note of the Gjallarhorn;
Loud blows Heimdall, the horn is aloft,
In fear quake all who on Hel-roads are.
shakes, and shiver on high
The ancient limbs, and the giant is loose;
To the head of Mim does Othin give heed,
But the kinsman of Surt shall slay him soon.
Poetc Edda’s Voluspa Bellows HA
suggest that as horns are usually found in pairs, Heimðallr’s
Gilliarhorn might have been one of the drinking vessels containing the
Holy Mead. This horn was probably
none other than Hoddrofnir, stored at Skuld's well.
Heithdraupnir’ is ‘Light-Dropper’ and ‘Hoddrofnir’ is
‘Treasure-Opener’, both names associated with Mimir, the warder of the
well of knowledge.
Heimdallr gives the necklace to Freyja. Painting by Nils Blommér
Of previous things
principle of Nordic cosmology is that all things are made out of
previous things. One day three of the Aesir, Othinin, Hoenir and
Lodur were walking along the seashore until they came across two
feeble trees. Odin gave them the spiritual force soul, Hoenir gave
them mind and senses, and Lodur gave them the external features to
differentiate them from other creatures. The male they named Ask
(ash) and the female the named Embla (elm). Ask and Embla became the
progenitors of the human race and Midgardr (middle enclosure) was
given to them as their residence. Thus according to Norse mythology,
human beings descended from the trees through the intervention of
the Gods. Later, as mentioned earlier, accordingly
blood entered into the human race making all of us, the direct
children of the gods, instead of just created creatures.
It can be
argued however that "Embla" is is not necessarily related to "elm".
It is possible, but the word could just as well be related to the
Greek 'ampelos' (vine). It was Hans Sperber, back in 1911 who made
the connection. You'll find the article in PBB 36, p. 219-222ff. The
original "elm" derivation was Bugge's, but it has always been
problematic, because the presence of the "b" in Embla is difficult
to explain in West Old Norse. Sperber pointed out the OHG woman's
name "Embila", and backtracked it to *ambilon, which could obviously
be related to the Greek "ampelos". The ash is hard wood, while the
vine is soft (and clinging). It was common to make fire by drilling
a piece of hard wood into a softer one, and apparently vines and
other related climbers were commonly used for that purpose. The
symbolism is self explanatory. Sigurður Nordal embraced Sperber's
idea (in Völuspá 1952), and the two possibilities are mentioned side
by side in the current Icelandic Etymological Dictionary (ÁBM 1989).
the shining God
populations included Anglians and Cimbrians who became two of the most
powerful tribes, the later tribe of the Danes was the result of a
fusion of several older tribes. According to the
the Danes were the followers of Konr, the
youngest son of the legendary Jarl from the Rigsþula saga.
order to do justice to this article, it would take the better part of
a huge dissertation just to cover just the Eddaic Poem
Rigsþula found in a manuscript known as The Poetic Edda.
etymology of the name "Edda" is great-grandmother suggesting its
antiquity and can be extended to imply also matrix or source. It is
undoubtedly a storehouse of ancient wisdom which should be ranked with
the world's greatest scriptures, having remained in a purer form than
many other traditions.
enlightened bards or skalds of long ago -- descendants of the story
tellers -- recited the epic sagas of the history and destiny of worlds
and men with captivating imagery, alliteration, and rhythm ages before
they were written down. Yes I am referring to the oral tradition!
Rigsþula gives account of how the god Heimðallr related to the heathen
folk then and in my opinion, is just as applicaple today. So in order
to make a viable effort within the short space allowed for this
article, I have, of necessity condensed the more interesting elements
without losing the topic’s main theme whilst in keeping with the lore
pertaining to Heimðallr and his namesake as good starting point!
Heimðallr's name can be broken down into
(brightness). Another alternate form "Heimdalr" also survives but in
this case, the second element could be
("bow"), so that the name would mean "World-Bow" - that is, the
head” is a kenning for sword whilst “Heimðallr’s
sword” is likewise a kenning for head (Háttatal 7, Faulkes 1991, 7;
Skáldskaparmál chap. 87, Jónsson 1931, 190).
confirmed by the rhyme with fallinn in Husdrapa 10/4 (Snorra Edda 90).
There would be no reason for simplifying -ll- in the gen. Dallr,
however, is a rare, probably archaic, word for 'tree', recorded as
such ('arbor prolifera') only in Biorn Haldorsen's Lexicon. Both
Haldorsen and Blöndal gloss dall/r/dal/ur signifying a bowl of wood
(with lid and handIe) for liquid food (in northern Iceland).
Elsewhere, such a bowl was called askr/askur, presumably because it
was made of wood (not necessarily ash-wood). By analogy, a wooden bowl
might be called dallr because it was made from the wood of a tree/
dallr (again, not necessarily of a specific tree). The nom. form
once (Snorra Edda 99), the gen. form Heimðallar
eleven times (Pipping I. 7). Dalr is a poetic term for 'bow' (gen.
dals and dalar; LP s.v.), listed in Þulur IV (Skjald B 1.665), Snorra
Edda 203, beside almr, 'elm- wood bow', and yr, 'yew-wood bow'; dalr
may have become a bow-heiti because dalr also was a tree name, a
variant, presumably, of dallr.
(gen. -dala) in Þulur IV aa (Skjald B 1.670), Snorra Edda 210, may
have arisen from popular interchangeability of -dall- and -dal- in
name. The ram may have been named after the god both because it was
the proper sacrifice to the god, sharing his identity (see Tolley (a),
344-6), and because, like the god, he was the father of flocks (kindir).
No doubt it was in this shepherding capacity that he listened to the
growing of the grass and of his sheep's wool. On the mythologems
see Pipping, Eddastudier, and esp. I; Tolley (a), 326-61, 'The god
as a hypostasis of the world axis';UD (i), 666-76, 'Arbor parens: god
as world tree and world pillar'. It seems that Ursula Dronke sees
here as a
representative of the world-tree. When we see that he was given a
drink of the very fountains, which feed the tree, we can see why he
would be represented this way. Many scholars fail to see the three
world-fountains in the drink that was given to
conjectural reading of the "head" being called Heimðallr's
sword", might have something to do with the epithet "gull-tanne” or
"gold toothed". Following Meissner's "Die Kenningar der Skalden"
[(1921), pp.150-164.] there are no less than seventeen kennings
for "swords" involving the mouth.
If these golden 'teeth' are seen as his weaponry, thus the head of an
animal or man would do the biting with the metaphorical 'swords' of
, in the sense of "biting" and there are many kennings involving the
'biting of swords'.
Much of this
information is corroborated in Gylfaginning
or complemented in Volospá, e.g.,
as the warder of the gods, residing in Himinbjorg
near the rainbow bridge Bifrost, ready to blow his far-sounding horn,
Gjallarhorn at Ragnarok. The Norse god of
has generated a
great deal of interest today amongst both scholars and Northern
Traditionalist. Ellis Davidson (1969, 105–7) cites that
is the most impressive after the great gods and Loki. He has been
variously interpreted as the god of the heavens, of light, the father
of the gods, an emanation of an older god, an equivalent of Varuna,
Mithra and Janus, and an embodiment of the world tree Yggdrasil, most
recently the god of fire (Schröder 1967).
Svá segja menn í
fornum sögum, at einnhverr af ásum, sá er Heimdallr hét, fór ferðar
sinnar ok fram með sjóvarströndu nökkurri, kom at einum húsabœ ok
nefndiz Rígr; eftir þeiri sögu er kvæði þetta:
ancient Sagas it is related that one of the Æsir named Heimðallr,
being on a journey to a certain sea-shore, came to a village, where he
called himself Rig. In accordance with this Saga is the following:
is one of the most mentioned gods in the Poetic Edda.
Eddic poem Rígsþula
begins with the tale of how Heimðallr fared on his way and forth to a
certain sea-strand, came to a house-dwelling and named himself Rígr".
The title "Rígr" is probably derived from the Irish Celtic word for
"king". The poem itself tells of how he fathered the founders of the
three classes of humankind: Thrall, the father of slaves, Carl, the
father of free farmers, and Earl, the father of rulers. The process is
not simply one of separation, though: it is a process of growth on the
part of the human race. Thrall's parents are called
"Great-Grandfather" and "Great-Grandmother"; Carl's are "Grandfather"
and "Grandmother"; Earl's are "Father" and "Mother" - Heimdallr is
clearly sowing a seed and tending it through the generations.
of this tale goes back at least to the time of Tacitus, who reports
the Germanic belief of the god Mannus who
had fathered the three great tribes, Ingvaeones, Hermiones, and
Istavaeones. In this aspect,
appears not only as the watcher of the Rainbow Bridge, but as its
embodiment: he is the first of the living links between the god/esses
and all humankind. The beginning of
bears this out: the seeress begins with the words, "Hearing I bid
of all holy ones, both high and low of Heimdallr's kin". "Heimdallr's
kin" must at least include the god/esses and humans; perhaps the etins
(Norse Giants) as well, if one thinks on his mothers.
Heimðallr the teacher
Heimðallr is also a teacher, wise in all crafts and willing to give
them to those humans who are able to learn them.
Rígsþula shows him
coming to Earl to teach his son runes and spur him on to win his
inheritance; when Earl's son Konr has learned the runes well enough,
Heimðallr gives up the title of "Rígr" to him. Both this reference and
the title of the lost poem
Heimdallargaldr suggest that Heimðallr is a master of
magic. Sci Fi authors Harry Harrison and John Holm
present "Rígr" as the god of human invention and technological
progress, which fits well with the picture given by this poem.
Heimðallr’s nickname Hallinskíði or 'bent stick' also appears as a
kenning for "ram", possibly suggesting to the bent horns on a ram's
Accordingly by this rationale, it seems that Heimdallr is a good god
to call on for academic help - perhaps even better than Woden
in subjects where wild verbal inspiration is not particularly needed.
Rig was identified with
around the late 13th century although the evidence is scant
to warrant this, and it seems likely that the poet who composed the
Rigsþula must have had Othinn rather then
in mind. The purpose of this was to trace the origin of the royal
estate to the chief of the gods. The evidence bearing on this
identification is briefly summed up in the note on the introductory
prose passage, but the question involves complex and baffling problems
in mythology, and from very early times the status of
was unquestionably confusing to the Norse mind, in part because of
varying scholastic interpretations today but also because of the
fragmentary nature of the surviving texts.
Poetc Edda’s Voluspa Bellows translation strophe ! & 2 we see:
1. Hearing I ask
from the holy races,
's sons, both high and low;
Thou wilt, Valfather, that well I relate
Old tales I remember of men long ago.
2. I remember
yet the giants of yore,
Who gave me bread in the days gone by;
Nine worlds I knew, the nine in the tree
With mighty roots beneath the mold.
and Othinn are separate deities
views of a contingent of Germanic Dutch scholars who suggested that
the áss, Rígr, is really Odin and not Heim dallr (Meißner 1933; von
See 1981a, 84; von See 1981c, 514; de Vries 1967, 125), then the
epithet for Heim dallr of Úlfr Uggason in Húsdrápa 2.1, ráð gegninn
‘the helpful’ or ‘shrewd with advice’ (Jóns son 1912–15, B1:128), will
have no bearing on Rígsþula; Now to clear up a little misconception
and Othinn being considered one and the same god, we need to take a
look at Lokesenna.
48. Hush thee,
to a hateful life
wast doomed in days of yore:
with a stiff back thou must stand always
and wake as the watch of the gods.
are clearly two separate deities as this stanza directly identifies
strife between Othinn and Heimdallr with the result being
‘punishment’ (as it is implied by Loki) to stand watch over the
Bifröst Bridge. Each of the referenced poetic translations identify a
‘punishment’ imposed upon Heimdallr, some with Loki´s tone in a more
malevolent fashion, but only the Hollander translation specifically
‘position’ as a charge lain upon Him. Considering the only written
record of the repercussions of the Vanic War is the chronology of the
creation of the holy mead as a bond between the , such a direct
reference to Heimdallr’s ‘punishment’ (the only legitimate reference
to any God or Goddess being punished) is acceptable as evidence of a
charge, or duty, levied upon an oppositional leader to a conflict;
this is very clear and re-enforces the probability that this duty was
imposed as referred in the sentence: “wast doomed in the days of
22. Hush thee,
not ever fairly
didst alot men luck in battle
oft thou gavest, as give thou should’st not,
mastery to worser men
I further argue
that in above stanza 22 of the Hollander Lokesenna translation, Loki
clearly identifies and was addressing another god, namely Othinn and
this is different from that of Heimdallr whom he also addresses in
stanza 48? This too, re-enforces the probability of
role as the pre-Vanic War leader of the Vanir and as the God of
Virtues, as in Othinn´s infinite wisdom, He placed a former adversary
in such a trusted position as the sole sentinel of the bridge leading
into Asgarð. Another interesting fact is that in Rigsþula, Heimdallr,
calling Himself Rig, teaches the runes to His son—Jarl (which in Old
Norse means: earl, freeborn man, or gentleman). Hollander’s “stiff
back” [aurgo baki] has been rendered by others as “wet, clammy” (Klingenberg
1983, 144; Polomé 1987, 251). The term, in fact, meant “clayey, muddy”
and is otherwise used of Hœnir, who is called aurkonungr.
33. Thither from
the forest came
runes he taught him,
and his own son declared him,
whom he bade possess
his alodial fields,
his alodial fields,
his ancient dwellings.
The Poetic Edda
may be that this is due to the sentinel’s proximity to the rainbow
bridge Bifrost. Rather more tentatively, I note an allusion in
Skírnismál 28 that suggests Heimðallr
may have had some kind of highly visible facial disfigurement, since
he is cited as a reference point in a context of ugliness. Could this
have resulted from the fight with Loki or the loss of the ear?
28. As a prodigy
thou shalt be,
when thou goest forth;
Hrinmir shall at thee gaze,
all being at thee stare;
more wide-known thou shalt become
than the watch among the gods,
if thou from thy gratings gape.
The White As
first line of Þrymskviða
15, Heimðallr is refered to as the "whitest of the Ases"; in the
second, it is said that "he knew well the future, like other Wans".
Hilda R. Ellis
Davidson in Gods and Myths of Northern Europe suggested a
and the Vanir, possibly based on stanza 15 of the Eddic poem
spoke, whitest of the Aesir,
Like the other Vanir he knew the future well.
translations of the Elder lore suggest that
regarded as the White God
the White Ás.
The characterisations of
as the White Ás are reflective associations as to the nature of this
noble God as a God of Virtue. Another associative description in that
He has teeth of gold; suggesting that the words that he speaks are as
honourable and as true as his actions. Another argument is that
Gullintanni 'golden-toothed' would refer to the yellow colouring found
in the teeth of old rams. (Georges Dumézil
1959) These titles have nothing, whatsoever, with the ills of modern
advocations of those whom adhere to the viral philosophy of prejudice
against others of non-northern European ancestry, nor of white
To those who do
attempt to rationalise this into a historical perversion to justify
their calls of prejudice are as ignorant and cowardly as those who use
such wording to justify their own actions.
desecrate the sanctity of our northern ancestors or the God of Virtue
are nothing but niðlings whom, either by
laziness or more likely deliberate choice, pervert these literary
associations for their own political ends. Sadly, one
of the Gods that have been manipulated for racist political agendas is
Heimðallr who is used as an example of racial purity and white
separatism/supremecy in certain political organisations within the
United States? It beggers belief when such an honourable house as
Heimðallr’s is becomes a part of shameful legacy. This further has the
impact of creating misinformation in the popular world that the
genuine heithinn followers of
Heimðallr are racist or part of some World Order hatred based society?
I assure the reader that this is not the case!
In the Old Norse
poem Hyndluljod (Benjamin Thorpe Translation, 1865), we find the
following verses regarding the mysterious birth of
35. There was
in times of old,
with wondrous might endowed,
of origin divine:
nine Jötun maids
to the gracious god,
at the world's margin (i.e. the edge of the world).
36. Gialp gave
Greip gave him birth,
Eistla gave him birth,
Ulfrun gave him birth,
Imd and Atla,
37. The boy was
with the strength of earth,
with the ice-cold sea,
and with Son's blood.
Strrlusson’s references the lost Heimdallargaldr
which says Hama Heimðallr was born of nine mothers. The lost
Heimðallargaldr may have contained the following adventure which was
also referenced in Úlf Uggason's skaldic poem Húsdrápa of which only
fragments are preserved:
His mothers have
their abodes við jarðar þröm or near the edge of the earth, on the
outer rim of the earth, and that is where they gave him life (báru
þann mann). His mothers are giantesses (jötna meyjar), and nine in
number. We find giantesses, nine in number, mentioned as having their
activity on the outer edge of the earth - namely, those who with the
möndull, the handle, turn the vast friction-mechanism, the world-mill
of Mundilfori. They are the níu brúðir of Eylúður, "the Isle-grinder,"
mentioned by the poet in a strophe by the skald Snæbjörn (Skáldskaparmál
story has come to us through Christian hands but enough of the
original material remains to show that its main purpose was to tell us
how the great gifts of culture came to the human race. The saga names
the land where this took place. The country was the most southern
part of the Scandinavian Peninsula bordering on the western sea. Other
sources for this myth include the Beowulf poem, Ethelwerdus (Ethelwerd),
Willielmus Malmesburiensis (William of Malmsbury), Simeon Dunelmensis
(Simeon of Durham), and Matthæus Monasteriensis (Matthew of
One day it came
to pass that a ship was seen sailing near the coast of Scedeland or
Scani, [The Beowulf poem has the name Scedeland (Scandia): compare the
name Skådan in De origine Longobardorum. Ethelwerd writes: "Ipse Skef
cum uno dromone advectus est in insulam Oceani, quæ dicitur Scani,
armis circumdatus," &c.] And it approached the land without being
propelled either by oars or sails. The ship came to the sea-beach, and
there was seen laying in it a little boy, who was sleeping with his
head on a sheaf of grain, surrounded by treasures and tools, by
glaives and coats of mail. The boat itself was stately and beautifully
decorated. Who he was and whence he came from nobody had any idea, but
the little boy was received as if he had been a kinsman, and he
received the most constant and tender care. Snorri’s part in the
equation of man’s doom = sword. As he makes clear elsewhere:
Many Neo pagans
today regard this event as a fairy tale myth or a bogey man story told
to frighten heathens in ancient times or perhaps based on a perceived
belief that this is Snorri’s slant of Christian Armageddon? Others say
this is does not fit in or is not applicable in today’s New Age of
understanding and technological marvels! For the record, I believe
that the “Judgment of the Powers” or Ragnarokkr is indeed a very real
forthcoming event and that we should always be on our guard for the
signs. Ragnarokkr is also known as Gotterdammerung, which means the
end of the cosmos in Norse mythology. We all know that one day our
star the sun will die and that this day is the end of all organic life
on our planet.
45. Hard is
it on earth, with mighty whoredom;
Axe-time, sword-time, shields are sundered,
Wind-time, wolf-time, ere the world falls;
Nor ever shall men each other spare.
The Poetic Edda,
Voluspo Bellows HA
warder of the Bifrost Bridge will certainly be the very first of the
gods to see the threat and I argue that he will also be amongst the
very first of the combatants to oppose the forces of fiery Surtr or
die in the attempt! This makes him among the most heroic and
courageous of the Tivar who knows and will do his duty.
The “Lay of Ríg"
as preserved fills exactly the last sheet of the Codex Wormianus of
Snorri's Edda. However, not withstanding its fragmentary condition, it
may have been a glorification of the existing aristocratic order in
the Scandinavian homeland and possibly a vindication of the divine
origin of kingship. But this is as far as agreement among scholars
goes: about few Eddic poems has there been such a diversity of opinion
in almost every other respect. Thus, one famous scholar is convinced
that the author had Norwegian condition in mind, that the lay is
therefore Norwegian, and that it dates from the tenth century, that
the young Konr may represent Harald Fairhair himself. In my personal
opinion however, the best that is to be found in humanity can be seen
demonstrated by the virtues of
is the reason why he is so admired by many heathen truefolk today and
Heimðallr! Heill the Tivar! Heill the holy races of Heimðallr!
sings in stanza 115:
Ready in wisdom, striveth
At Singasteinn with Loki,
Fárbauti's sin-sly offspring;
The son of mothers eight and one,
Mighty in wrath, possesses
The Stone ere Loki cometh:
I make known songs of praise.
refers to the collective of both the Aesir and the Vanir gods,
sometimes referred to as the Regin.
refers to the Song of Rig, a
found in the Poetic Edda explaining, on a mythological basis, the
origin of the different castes of early society: the thralls, the
peasants, and the warriors.
refers to the youngest of three sons of
and he inherited the name 'Rig', Konr the Young or Kon ung (konung
meaning 'king' in Old Norse) also inherited the name or title Ríg.
This third Ríg was the first true king and the ultimate founder of the
state of royalty as appears in the Rígsthula and in two other works in
connection. In all three sources he is connected with two primordial
Danish rulers named Dan and Danp.
older of the two Eddas and therefore sometimes called the Elder Edda.
It is also sometimes referred to as Saemund's Edda after a famous
Kenning refers to a
conventional metaphoric name for something, used especially
in Old English and Old Norse poetry
is the first part of the Christian poet and historian Snorri
Sturluson's Edda. The Gylfaginning deals with the creation and
destruction of the world of the Norse gods, and many other aspects of
long poem contained within the collection of Old Icelandic poetry
known as the Poetic Edda. Written somewhere about 1000 BCE it marks
the end of the heathen era and the start of the Christian age.
"Heaven's Cliffs" and refers to the home of Heimðallr, dwelling at the
end of the bridge Bifrost (the rainbow), where he (cf. Voluspo,
27) keeps watch against the coming of the giants.
Ragnarok \Rag"na*r["o]k"\, n. [Icel., fr. regin, r["o]gn, gods +
r["o]k reason, origin, history; confused with ragna-r["o]kr the
twilight of the gods.] (Norse Myth.) The so-called ``Twilight of the
Gods'' (called in German G["o]tterd["a]mmerung), the final
destruction of the world in the great conflict between the [AE]sir
(gods) on the one hand, and on the other, the gaints and the powers
of Surtr under the leadership of Loki (who is escaped from bondage).
was a mythological character from whom a number of Germanic tribes
were descended. Tacitus in his book Germania explicitly mentions the
names of these Germanic tribes, claiming descent from Mannus: *Ingvaeones
(living at the coastal line of the North Sea)*Irminones (living in the
interior part around the Elbe)*Istvaeones (living at the borders of
the river Rhine)
Óðinn, Oden, Wodan, Odin from ancient sources, such as the Niebelung
traditions, the Icelandic Eddas, Sagas, and Skaldic poetry.
races probably means little more than mankind in general.
Valfather means "Father of the Slain" and is one of the many names
of Othinn, chief of the Aesir gods, so called because the slain
warriors were brought to him at Valhall ("Hall of the Slain") by the
Valkyries ("Choosers of the Slain").
and aurkonungr, "Long-leg" and "Mire-king" applied to Hoenir, is
applicable to the stork, and that this cannot be an accident, as the
very name Hænir suggests a bird, and is related to the Greek kuknos
and the Sanscrit sakunas (Corpus Poet. Bor., i. p. cii.)
is the name of one: he is called the White God. He is great and holy;
nine maids, all sisters, bore him for a son. The term
refers to the Aesir.
refer to a
coward; a dastard; -- a term of utmost opprobrium
Heimdallargaldr refers to
Magical Song” which Snorri quotes a scrap fragment of a lost poem in
which the god declares of himself: "I am son of nine maids, I am son
of nine sisters".
ed. and trans. 1987. Snorri Sturluson, Edda. London: Dent.
ed. 1991. Snorri
Sturluson, Edda: Háttatal. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
Ellis Davidson, Gods and Myths of Northern Europe, 1965
Norse Mythology, A Guide to the Gods, Heroes, Rituals & Beliefs, 2001
Lee M Hollander,
The Poetic Edda, 1962
The Poetic Edda Volume II, The Mythological Poems, 1997.
“Sem jarlar forðum: The Influence of Rígsþula on Two Saga-Episodes.”
Norroenum: Norse Studies in Memory of Gabriel Turville-Petre, ed.
Dronke et al.,
56–72. Odense: Odense Univ. Press
Edgar C Polomé,
In The Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. Mircea Eliade,
York: Macmillan. Polomé,
Gabriel Turville-Petre, 1964. “Heimðallr.” Chap. 6 in his Myth and
of the North:
The Religion of Ancient Scandinavia.
Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Jean Young, Does
Betray Irish Influence? 1933 Arkiv för nordisk filologi 49:97–107.
About me ]
[ Asatru &
Heathenry ] [
Links ] [
Freyja Runes Seidr
Bones Women ] [
Pierced by the light
Column ] [
Rune Lore ] [
von List ]
View Comments ]
My Reviews ]
Reviews ] [
Norse Mythology ] [
HE Davidson ]
[ Lotte Motz
NA Runestones ]