Old Norse Mythology

Old Norse Mythology

Norse Mythology in its form today comes down to us mainly from the Icelandic Edda's and sagas which were written down centuries after the Christianization took hold in the north. There has been vast research carried out to date attempting to understand the historical Old Norse Religion as opposed to reconstructed variables of this ancient praxis and belief as it was practiced by the peoples of those Scandinavian countries around the late Iron Age. This is opposed to the representation we are given in the written sources. Norse mythology presents us with a multi-layered, often contradictory, world view with a myriad of parallels in other mythological systems. It is a playground for the comparative mythology researcher, rich with elements from Indo-European, shamanistic, and other belief systems. It is with this thought that I hope to present some of the better researched works of authors in the field of Norse Mythology. I will also include others of a more controversial nature that may conflict with varying scholastic views. I leave it to the discerning reader to make up their owns minds as to the validity of the information presented here

Seiðr Bibliography

Adalsteinsson, Jon Hnefill. "The Vardhlokkur of Gudridur Thorbjarnardottir." Northern Lights : Following Folklore in North-western Europe. Dublin : University College Dublin P, 2001. (ISBN 1900621630)

Bäckman, Louis. "Types of Shaman: Comparative Perspectives." Studies in Lapp Shamanism. Eds. Louise Bäckman and Åke Hultkrantz. Stockholm Studies in Comparative Religion 16. Stockholm: Almquist & Wiskell, 1978.

Behringer, Wolfgang. The Shaman of Oberstdorf: Conrad Stoeckhlin and the Phantoms of the Night. Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, 1998.

Blain, Jenny. Nine Worlds of Seid-Magic: Ecstasy and Neo-Shamanism in North European Paganism. London: Routledge, 2002. (ISBN 0415256518)

Bourguignon, Erika, ed. Religion, Altered States of Consciousness, and Social Change. Columbus, OH: Ohio UP, 1973.

Boyer, Régis. "On the Composition of Völuspá. Edda: A Collection of Essays. Eds. Robert J. Glendinning and Haraldur Bessason. U. of Manitoba Icelandic Studies 4. Manitoba: U of Manitoba P, 1983. 117-133.

Buchholz, Peter. "Shamanism - the Testimony of Old Icelandic Literary Tradition." Mediaeval Scandinavia. 4 (1971): 7-20.

Chaney, William A. "Aethelberht's Code and the King's Number." The American Journal of Legal History. 6 (1962): 151-157.

Davidson, H. R. Ellis. "Hostile Magic in the Icelandic Sagas." The Witch Figure, Ed. V. Newell. Boston: Routledge and Keegan Paul, 1973. 20-41. (ISBN 0710076967) see: tinyurl.com/5oavzo

Dillmann, Francois-Xavier. "Katla and Her Distaff: An Episode of Tri-Functional Magic in the Eyrbyggja Saga?" Homage to Georges Dumézil. Ed. E. Polomé. Jour. of Indo-European Studies Monograph 3. Washington, DC: Jour. of Indo-European Studies, Inst. for the Study of Man, 1982.

Dubois, Thomas. Nordic Religions in the Viking Age. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1999. [see esp. chapter 6, "The Intercultural Dimensions of the Seidr Ritual", which examines the possible influences of Saami noaidevuohtta ("shamanism") on Seid practice]

"Seidr, Sagas, and Saami: Religious Exchange in the Viking Age." Northern Peoples, Southern States: Maintaining Ethnicities in the Circumpolar World. Ed. Robert P. Wheelersburg. Northern studies. Umeå [Sweden]: CERUM, 1996. 43-66.

Eliade, Mircea. Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy. Bollingen Ser. 76. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1964.

Ginzburg, Carlo. Ecstasies: Deciphering the Witches’ Sabbath. New York: Random, 1991.

Harris, Joseph. "Cursing with the Thistle: 'Skírnismál' 31, 6-8 and O-E Metrical Charm 9." The Poetic Edda : Essays on Old Norse Mythology. Ed. Paul Acker and Carol Larrington. New York: Routledge, 2002. 79-93.

Haugen, Einar. "The Edda as Ritual: Odin and His Masks." Edda: A Collection of Essays. Eds. Robert J. Glendinning and Haraldur Bessason. U. of Manitoba Icelandic Studies 4. Manitoba: U of Manitoba P, 1983. 3-24.

Host, Annette. "Exploring Seidhr: A Practical Study of the Seidhr Ritual." North Atlantic Studies. 4.1-2 (2001): 73-79.

Jenny. "Old Norse Magic and Gender." Scandinavian Studies. 63.3 (1991): 305-317.

Kelchner, Georgia. Dreams in Old Norse Literature and Their Affinities in Folklore. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1935.

Kress, Helga. "The Apocalypse of a Culture: Völuspa and the Myth of the Sources/Sorceress in Old Icelandic Culture." Poetry in the Scandinavian Middle Ages: The Seventh International Saga Conference Under the High Patronage of the President of the Italian Republic, Francesco Cossiga, Spoleto, 4-10 September 1988. Paroli: Spoleto Presso la Serede del Centro Studi, 1990. 279-302.

Liestøl, Aslak, 1963: Runer frå Bryggen. I: Viking. 27 (1963): 5–53

Masters, Robert. The Psychophysical Method Exercises. Pomona, NY: Kontrakundabuffer, 1983. (6 vols.)

The Way to Awaken : Exercises to Enliven Body, Self, and Soul. Wheaton, Ill. : Theosophical, 1997.

Masters, Robert, and Jean Houston. Mind Games: The Guide to Inner Space. Wheaton, IL: Quest, 1998.

Monroe, Robert A. Journeys Out of Body. Mansfield, OH: Main Street, 1973.

Morris, Katherine. Sorceress or Witch? The Image of Gender in Medieval Iceland and Northern Europe. Lanham, MD: UP of Amer., 1991.

Motz, Lotte. "Old Icelandic völva: A New Derivation." Indogermanische Forshungen 85 (1980): 196-206

Moyne, Earnest J. Raising the Wind: The Legend of Lapland and Finland Wizards in Literature. Newark: Prentice Hall, 1981.

Norlander-Unsgaard, Siv. "On Gesture and Posture, Movements, and Motion in the Saami Bear Ceremonialism." Arv 41 (1985): 189-99.

Palsson, Gisli. "The Name of the Witch: Sagas, Sorcery, and Social Context." Social Approaches to Viking Studies. Ed. Ross Samson. Glasgow: Cruithne, 1991. 157-168.

Pentikainen, Juha. Shamanism and Culture. Helsinki: Etnika, 1997.

Quinn, Judy. "Dialogue with a völva: Völuspá, Baldrs draumar and Hyndluljód." The Poetic Edda : Essays on Old Norse Mythology. Ed. Paul Acker and Carol Larrington. New York: Routledge, 2002. 245-274.

Raudvere, Catharina. "Trólldómr in Early Medieval Scandinavia." Witchcraft and Magic in Europe: The Middle Ages. Athlone Hist. of Witchcraft and Magic in Europe. London: Athlone, 2001. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 2002. (ISBN 0812236165; 0812217861 pbk) [see esp. her second chapter, which deals with seiðr; see review in Runa 12]

Schach, Paul. "Some Thoughts on Völuspá." Edda: A Collection of Essays. Eds. Robert J. Glendinning and Haraldur Bessason. U. of Manitoba Icelandic Studies 4. Manitoba: U of Manitoba P, 1983. 86-116.

Simpson, Jacqueline. "Olaf Tryggvason Versus the Powers of Darkness." The Witch Figure. Ed. V. Newell. Boston: Routledge and Keegan Paul, 1973. 165-187. (ISBN 0710076967)

Sørensen, Preben Meulengracht. The Unmanly Man: Concepts of Sexual Defamation in Early Northern Society. Trans. Joan Turville-Petre. Viking Collection 1. Odense: Odense UP, 1983.

Scandinavian mythology: General and particular

Bertell, Mats, Tor och den nordiska åskan: Förställningar kring världsaxeln (Stockholm, 2003)

Bugge, Sophus, "Iduns æbler", ANF, 5 (1889), 1-45 Bugge, Sophus, "Mindre bidrag til nordisk mythologi og sagnhistorie", Aarbøger (1895), 123-138

Chesnutt, Michael, "The beguiling of Þórr", in Úr Dölum til Dala, ed. Rory McTurk and Andrew Wawn, Leeds texts and monographs, new series 11 (Leeds, 1989), pp.35-63

Davidson, H. R. Ellis, Gods and myths of Northern Europe (Harmondsworth, 1964)

Davidson, Hilda R. Ellis, Scandinavian mythology (London, 1969)

Dumézil, Georges, Gods of the ancient northmen (Berkeley, 1987)

Dumézil, Georges, From myth to fiction: the saga of Hadingus (Chicago, 1973)

Dumézil, Georges, The stakes of the warrior, trans. David Weeks, ed. Jaan Puhvel (Berkeley, 1983)

Finnur Magnússon (as Finn Magnusen), Veterum borealium mythologiæ lexicon

(Havniæ, 1828); published also in Edda Saemundar hins froða, ed. Finnur

Magnússon and others, 3 vols (Havniæ, 1787-1828), III, pp.272-1142

Grundtvig, Nikolai Fred. Sev., Nordens mythologi, eller sindbilled-sprog, 3rd ed. (Kiøbenhavn, 1870)

Grönbech, Vilhelm, The culture of the Teutons, 3 vols in 2, trans. W. Worster (London, 1932)

Haraldur Bessason and Baldur Hafstað, eds. Heiðin minni: greinar um fornar bókmenntir

(Reykjavík, 1999): Including: Kurt Schier, “Loki og Heimdallur: Athugusemdir um eðli og uppruna tveggja torræða goða”; Haraldur Bessason, “Um rúm og tíma í Völuspá”, Hermann Pálsson, “Vargur á tölti: drög að norrænni tröllafræði”; Gísli Sigurðsson, “Ein sat hún úti: Leitar Óðinn þekkingar hjá völvunni eða opnast henni sýn fyrir tilstilli Óðins?”; Jón Hnefill Aðalsteinsson, “Blótminni í Landnámabók”

Holtsmark, Anne, "Myten om Idun og Tjatse i Tjoldovs Haustlong", ANF, 64 (1949), 1- 73

Höfler, Otto, Verwandlungskulte, Volksagen und Mythen, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, philosophisch-historiche Klasse, Sitzungsberichte, 279. Band, 2. Abhandlung (Wien, 1973)

Haraldur Bessason and Baldur Hafstað, eds. Heiðin minni: greinar um fornar bókmenntir (Reykjavík, 1999)

Harris, Joseph, "Ögmundar þáttr dytts ok Gunnars helmings. Unity and literary relations", ANF, 90 (1975), 156-182

Harris Joseph, and Hill, Thomas D., "Gestr's `prime sign': source and signification in Norna-Gests þáttr", ANF, 104 (1989), 103-122

Holtsmark, Anne, "Myten om Idun og Tjatse i Tjoldovs Haustlong", ANF, 64 (1949), 1-73

Jónas Kristjánsson, ed., Ögmundar þáttr dýtts, in ÍF IX (Reykjavík, 1956), pp.LV- LXIV and pp.109-115 KLNM: See under Kulturhistorisk leksikon for nordisk middelalder

Krappe, Alexander Haggerty, "Le legende de Gunnar Half", Acta philological Scandinavica, 3 (1928-1929), 226-233

Kress, Helga, Máttugar meyjar; Íslensk fornbókmenntasaga (Reykjavík 1993) Kulturhistorisk leksikon for nordisk middelalder, ed. Magnús Már Lárusson, Jakob Benediktsson et al., 22 vols (Reykjavík, 1956-1978)

Lindow, John, Handbook of Nordic Mythology (Santa Barbara, 2001)

Lindow, John, Murder and Vengeance among the gods; Baldr in Scandinavian mythology, FF Communications, 262 (Helsinki, 1997)

Lindow, John, Scandinavian mythology: an annotated bibliography (New York, 1988)

Lindow, John, "Addressing Thor", Scandinavian Studies (1988), 119-136

Lindow, John, "Thor's Duel with Hrungnir", Alvíssmál, 6 (1996), 3-20

Lindow, John, "Thor's hamarr", Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 93.4 (1994), 485-503

Magnusson, Magnus, Hammer of the North (London, 1976)

Martin, John Stanley, Ragnarök: an investigation into Old Norse concepts of the fate of the gods, Melbourne monographs in Germanic studies, 3 (Assen, 1972)

McKinnell, John, Both One and Many: Essays on Change and Variety in Late Norse Heathenism (Rome, 1994)

Näsström, Britt-Mari, Freyja, the great goddess of the north (Lund, 1995)

Nordberg, Anders, Krigarna i Odins sal: Dödsföreställningar och krigarkult i fornnordisk religion (Stockholm, 2003)

Orchard, Andy, Cassell’s Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend (London, 1998)

Perkins, Richard, Thor the Wind Raiser and the Eyrarland Image (London, 2001)

Ross, Margaret Clunies, Prolonged Echoes: Old Norse myths in medieval Northern society: I: The myths (Odense, 1994)

Ross, Margaret Clunies, Skáldskaparmál. Snorri Sturluson's ars poetica and medieval theories of language, The viking collection, 4 (Odense, 1987)

Schjödt, Jens Peter, "Horizontale und vertikale Aschen in der vorchristlichen skandinavischen Kosmologie", Old Norse and Finnish Religions and Cultic Placenames, ed. Tore Albäck (Åbo, 1990), ****

Schjødt, Jens Peter,Den Förkristne Norden: Religion og mytologi (Köbenhavn, 1999)

Schjødt, Jens Peter: Initiation, Liminalitet og tilegnelse af numinøs viden: En undersøgelse af struktur og symbolik i førkristen nordisk religion (Århus, 2003)Schjødt, Jens Peter, "Relationen mellem aser og vaner og dens ideologiske implikationer",

Nordisk hedendom: Et symposium, ed. Gro Steinsland, Ulf drobin, Juha Pentikäinen and Preben Meulengracht Sørensen (Odense, 1991), 303-319

Simek, Rudolf, Hugtök og heiti í norrænni goðafræði, trans. Ingunn Ásdísardóttir, ed. Heimir Pálsson (Reykjavík, 1993)

Simek, Rudolf, A Dictionary of Northern Mythology, trans. Angela Hall (Cambridge, 1996)

Rudolf Simek and Wilhelm Heizmann, Mythological women: Studies in memory of Lotte

Motz (1922-1997) (Wien, 2002), including: Margrethe Watt, “Images of Women on “Guldgubber” from the Merovingian Age”; Rudolf Simek, “Goddesses, Mothers, Dísir: Iconography and Interpretation of the Female Deity in Scandinavia in the First Millenium”; Else Mundal, “Giantesses and Female Powers in Völuspá”; Anatoly Libermann, “What Happened to the Female Dwarfs?”; John McKinnell, “Þorgerður Hölgabrúður andHyndluljóð”;Lise Præstgaard Anderson, “On Valkyries, Shield Maidens and Other Armed Woman in Old Norse Sources and Saxo Grammaticus”

Ström, Folke, "Den döendes makt och Odin i trädet", Göteborgs Högskolas årskrift 54.2 (1947)

Ström, Folke, Nordisk hedendom, 3rd ed., rev. (Göteborg, 1985), unless otherwise stated

Svava Jakobsdóttir, "Gunnlöð og hinn dýri mjöður", Skírnir, 162 (1988), 215- 245

Turville-Petre, E. O. G., "Fertility of beast and soil in Old Norse literature", in Old Norse literature and mythology: a symposium, ed. Edgar C.Polomé (Austin, 1969), pp.244-264

Turville-Petre, E. O. G., Myth and religion of the North (London, 1964)

Vestlund, Alfred, "Åskgudens hammare förlorad: ett bidrag till nordisk ritforskning", Edda, 11 (1919), 95-119

 

Old Norse Mythology Bibliography

General myth

Burkert, Walter, Structure and history in Greek mythology and ritual (Berkeley, 1979)

Dundes, Alan, ed. Sacred Narrative (Berkeley, 1994)

Eliade, Mircea, Cosmos and history: the myth of the eternal return, trans. Willard B.

Trask (New York, 1959)

Eliade, Mircea, Myth and reality, trans. Willard R. Trask (London, 1964)

Eliade, Mircea, Patterns in comparative religion, trans. Rosemary Sheed (London,

1958)

Eliade, Mircea, Rites and symbols of initiation: the mysteries of birth and rebirth,

trans. Willard R. Trask (New York, 1965)

Eliade, Mircea, Shamanism: archaic techniques of ecstasy, trans. Willard R. Trask,

Bollingen series LXXVI (New York, 1964)

Campbell, Joseph, The way of animal powers, Historical atlas of world mythology, vol.I

(London, 1983)

Durkheim, Emile, The elementary forms of religious life, trans. Joseph Ward Swain

(London, 1964)

Gurevich, Aron I. Categories of Medieval Culture. Trans. G. L. Campbell (London,

1985).

La Fontaine, J. S., Initiation: ritual drama and secret knowledge across the

world (Harmondsworth, 1985)

Kirk, G. S., Myth: its meaning and functions in ancient and other cultures (Cambridge,

1970)

Kluckhohn, Clyde, "Myths and rituals: a general theory", published in revised form in

Reader in comparative religion; an anthropological approach, ed. William A.

Lessa and Evon Z. Vogt, 3rd ed. (New York, 1958), pp.93-105; originally

published in Harvard theological review, 35 (Jan 1942), 45-79

Lincoln, Bruce, Myth, cosmos and society: Indo-European themes of creation and

destruction (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1986)

Lincoln, Bruce, Priests, warriors and cattle (Berkeley, 1981)

Pettersson, Olof, Tro och rit (Stockholm, 1972)

Rutherford, Ward, Shamanism: the foundations of magic (Wellingborough, 1986)

Theodore M. Andersson. The Problem of Icelandic Saga Origins: An Historical Survey. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1964.

Theodore M. Andersson. The Icelandic Family Saga: An Analytic Reading. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1967.

Jesse L. Byock. Feud in the Icelandic Saga. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.

Jesse L. Byock. Medieval Iceland: Society, Sagas, and Power. Berkeley: University of  California Press, 1988.

Carol J. Clover. The Medieval Saga. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982.

Carol J. Clover & John Lindow (eds.) Old Norse-Icelandic Literature: A Critical Guide. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1985.

Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.) Old Icelandic Literature and Society. Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Peter Hallberg. The Icelandic Saga. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1962.

William Paton Ker. Epic and Romance: Essays on Medieval Literature. London:    Macmillan, 1896.

Jonas Kristjansson. Eddas and Sagas: Iceland’s Medieval Literature. Reykjavik, 1992.

John Lindow, Lars Lonnroth, Gerd W. Weber (eds.) Structure and Meaning in Old Norse Literature. Odense University press, 1986.

Rory McTurk (ed.) A Companion to Old Norse-Icelandic Literature and Culture. Oxford: Blackwell, 2005.

Preben Meulengracht Sorensen. Saga and Society: An Introduction to Old Norse   Literature. Odense University Press, 1993.

Heather O’Donoghue. Old Norse-Icelandic Literature: A Short Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell, 2004.

Paul Schach. Icelandic Sagas. Boston: Twayne, 1984.

Gsili Sigurdsson. The Medieval Icelandc Saga and Oral tradition: A Discourse on   Method. Harvard University Press, 2004.

John Tucker (ed.) Sagas of the Icelanders: A Book of Essays. New York: Garland, 1989.

E. O. G. Turville-Petre. Origins of Icelandic Literature. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1953.

Poetic Edda

Halldor Hermannsson. Bibliography of the Eddas. Ithaca, NY: Cornell, 1920.Johann S. Hannesson. Bibliography of the Eddas: A Supplement. Ithaca, NY: Cornell, [Classical and Medieval Literature Criticism 75:91-204]

Paul Acker & Carolyne Larrington (eds.) The Poetic Edda: Essays on Old Norse    Mythology. New York: Garland, 2001.

Robert J. Glendinning & Haraldur Bessason (eds.) Edda: A Collection of Essays.   Winnepeg: University of Manitoba, 1983.

The Poetic Edda / tr. Henry Adams Bellows. New York: American-Scandinavian   Foundation, 1923.

The Poetic Edda / tr. Lee M. Hollander. 2 nd ed., rev. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1962. (original ed. 1928)

Poems of the Vikings: The Elder Edda / tr. Patricia Terry. Indianapolis: Bobs-Merrill, 1969.

The Elder Edda: A Selection / tr. Paul B. Taylor & W. H. Auden. London: Faber &  Faber, 1970. [dedicated to J. R. R. Tolkien]

The Poetic Edda / tr. Carolyne Larrington. Oxford University Press, 1996.

The Poetic Edda / ed. & tr. Ursula Dronke. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969-1997 (2 vols.)    [1. Heroic Poems.—2. Mythological Poems]

The Prose Edda

The Prose Edda / tr. Arthur Gilchrist Brodeur. New York: American-Scandanavian Foundation, 1916.

The Prose Edda of Snorri Sturluson: Tales from Norse Mythology / tr. Jean I. Young. Cambridge: Bowes & Bowes, 1954.Edda / tr. Anthony Faulkes. London: Dent, 1987.

Scandinavian religion

Andrén, Anders, Jennbert, Kristina and Raudvere, Catharina, eds., Ordning mot kaos: Studier

av nordisk förkristen kosmologi, (Vägar til Midgård 4) (Lund, 2004): Including: Catharina Raudvera, “Delen eller helheten: kosmologi som empiriskt och analystiskt begrepp”; Jens Peter Schjødt, “Kosmologimodeller og mytekredse”; Morten Warmind, “... á þeim meiði, er mangi veit, hvers hann af rótum renn: Kosmologi og ritualer i det førkristne Norden”;Kristina Jennbert, “Människor och djur: Kropsmetaforik och kosmologiska perspektiv”; Lotte Hedeager, “Dyr og andre mennsesker – mennesker og andre dyr: Dyreornamentikkens transcendentale realitet”, Stefan Brink, “Mytologiska run och eskatologiska föreställningar i det vikingatida Norden”, Per Vikstrand, “Berget, lunden och åkern: Om sakrala og kosmologiska landskap ur ortnamnens perspektiv”; Anders Andrén, “I skuggan av Yggdrasil: Trädet mellan idé og realitet i nordisk tradition”;

Blöndal, Sigfús, Væringjasaga (Reykjavík, 1954)

Briem, Ólafur, Heiðinn siður á Íslandi, 2nd ed., rev. (Reykjavík, 1985)

Celander, Hilding, Förkristen jul enligt norröna källor, Göteborgs Universitets årsskrift, 61.3 (1955)

Constantin VII Porphyrogénète, Le livre des cérémonies, ed. and trans. Albert Vogt, 2 vols (Paris, 1935-1940) Cronholm, Abraham, Wäringarna (Lund, 1832)

Davidson, H. R. Ellis, Gods and myths of Northern Europe (Harmondsworth, 1964)

Davidson, H. R. Ellis, "Hostile magic in the Icelandic sagas", in The witch figure: Folklore essays by a group of scholars in England honouring the 75th birthday of Katherine M.

Briggs, ed. Venetia Newall (London, 1973), pp.20-41

Davidson, Hilda Ellis, The lost beliefs of Northern Europe (London, 1993)

Davidson, Hilda Ellis, Myths and symbols in pagan Europe (Syracuse, 1988)

Davidson, Hilda Ellis, Pagan Scandinavia (London, 1967)

Davidson, Hilda R. Ellis, Roles of the northern goddess (London, 1998)

Davidson, Hilda Ellis, The Viking road to Byzantium (London, 1976)

Glosecki, Stephen O., Shamanism and Old English poetry (New York, 1989)

Billington, Sandra, and Green, Miranda, The Concept of the Goddess (London, 1996), including Stephan Grundy, “Freyja and Frigg”, Britt Mari Näsström, “Freyja: A Goddess with Many Names”, Hilda Ellis Davidson, “Milk and the Northern Goddess”, Juliette Wood, “The Concept of the Goddess”

Grimm, Jakob, Teutonic Mythology, I, trans. James Steven Stallybrass. (London, 1882)

Jennbert, Kristina, Andrén, Anders, and Raudvere, Catharina, eds., Plats og Praxis: Studier av nordisk förkristen ritual (Lund, 2002): Catharina Raudvere: “Mellan liv og text: Ordets makt som litterärt motiv och rituell praktik i norrön litteratur”; Britt Mari Näsström, “I livets skeden: Om passageriter i fornskandinavisk religion”; Gro Steinsland, “Herkermaktens ritualer: Kan mytologien sette oss på spor av riter, gjenstander og kult knyttet til herskerens intronisasjon?”; Kristine Jennbert, “Djuren i nordisk förkristen ritual og myt”; Elisabeth Rudebeck, “Vägen som rituell arena”; Lars Jörgensen, “Kongsgårg- kultsted- marked: Omvejelser omkring Tissøkompleksets struktur og funktion”; Terje Gansum, “Fra jord til handling”; Anders Andrén, “Platsernas betydelse: norrön ritual och kultplatskontinuet”

Jón Hnefill Aðalsteinsson, "Blót and þing: the function of the tenth century goði",Themos, 21 (1985), 23-38

Jón Hnefill Aðalsteinsson, Blót í norrænum sið (Reykjavík, 1997)

Jón Hnefill Aðalsteinsson, "Gátur", in Íslensk þjóðmenning, VI: Munnmenntir og bók menning, ed. Frosti F. Jóhannesson (Reykjavík, 1989), pp.424-436

Jón Hnefill Aðalsteinsson, Kristntakan á Íslandi (Reykjavík, 1999)

Jón Hnefill Aðalsteinsson, "Norræn trú", in Íslensk þjóðmenning, V: Trúarhættir, ed.

Frosti F. Jóhannsson (Reykjavík, 1988), pp.1-73

Jón Hnefill Aðalsteinsson, A piece of horse liver, trans. Joan Turville-Petre and Terry Gunnell (Reykjavík, 1998)

Jón Hnefill Aðalsteinsson, Under the Cloak, trans. Barry J. Duesbury, Jón Hannesson et al. (Reykjavík, 1999)

Jónas Kristjánsson, ed., Ögmundar þáttr dýtts, in ÍF IX (Reykjavík, 1956), pp.LV- LXIV and pp.109-115

KLNM: See under Kulturhistorisk leksikon for nordisk middelalder Krappe, Alexander Haggerty, "Le legende de Gunnar Half", Acta philologica Scandinavica, 3 (1928-1929), 226-233

Kraus, Carl, "Das gotische Weihnachtsspiel", Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur, 20 (1895), 224-257 Kulturhistorisk leksikon for nordisk middelalder, ed. Magnús Már Lárusson, Jakob Benediktsson et al., 22 vols (Reykjavík, 1956-1978)

Lid, Nils, "Gudar og gudedyrking", in Nordisk kultur, XXVI: Religionshistorie, ed. Nils Lid (København, 1942), pp.80-153

Ledegaard, Mads, Danske høje fra sagn og tro (København, 1998)

Lindqvist, Sune, "Hednatemplet i Uppsala", in Fornvännen, 18 (1923), 85-118

Magnusson, Magnus, Hammer of the North (London, 1976)

Motz, Lotte, The king, the champion and the sorcerer, Studia Medievala Septentrionalia (Vienna, 1999)

Müllenhoff, Karl, Deutsche Altertumskunde, 5 vols (Berlin, 1870-1900)

Müller, Sophus, "Billed- og fremstillingskunst i Bronzealderen", Aarbøger (1920), 125-161

Neckel, Gustav, ed., and Kuhn, Hans, rev., Edda: die lieder des codex regius nebst verwandten denkmälern, I: Text, 4th ed. (Heidelberg, 1962)

Näsström, Britt Mari, Blot: Tro och offer i det förskristna norden (Stockholm, 2001)Olrik, Axel, Kilderne til Sakses oldhistorie, 2 vols (København, 1892-1894) Olrik, Axel and Ellekilde, Nils, Nordens gudeverden, 2 vols (København, 1926-1951)

Olsen, Magnus, "Fra gammelnorsk myte og kultus", MM (1909), 17-36

Olsen, Magnus, Hedenske kultminder i norske stedesnavne, Videnskaps selskapets skrifter, II.

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