Rune Bibliography

Runic Bibliography in English
This is not a comprehensive bibliography, but consists of English-language scholarship on runes that has, with a few exceptions, been published in the past 25 years

Antonsen, Elmer H., A Concise Grammar of the Older Runic Inscriptions (1975).

Antonsen, Elmer H., Runes and Germanic Linguistics (2002).

Elliott, Ralph W. V., Runes: An Introduction (2d ed., 1989).

Flowers, Stephen E., Runes and Magic: Magical Formulaic Elements in the Older Runic Tradition (1986).

Herschend, Frands, The Recasting of a Symbolic Value: Three Case Studies on Rune-Stones (1993).

Jansson, Sven B. F., The Runes of Sweden (Peter G. Foote, trans.,1962).

Looijenga, Jantina Helena, Runes Around the North Sea and on the Continent AD 150-700: Texts and Contexts (1997).

MacLeod, Mindy, Bind-Runes: An Investigation of Ligatures in Runic Epigraphy (Runrön 15, 2002).

Makaev, È.A., The Language of the Oldest Runic Inscriptions: A Linguistic and Historical-Philological Analysis (1996).

McKinnell, John & Rudolf Simek, with Klaus Düwel, Runes, Magic. and Religion: A Sourcebook (2004).

Moltke, Erik, Runes and Their Origin: Denmark and Elsewhere (Peter G. Foote, trans., 1981).

Morris, Richard, Runic and Mediterranean Epigraphy (1988).

Nielsen, Hans Frede, The Early Runic Language of Scandinavia: Studies in Germanic Dialect Geography (2000).

Odenstedt, Bengt, On the Origin and Early History of the Runic Script (1990).

Old English Runes and Their Continental Background (Alfred Bammesberger, ed., 1991).

Page, R. I., The Icelandic Rune-Poem (1999).

Page, R. I., Runes and Runic Inscriptions: Collected Essays on Anglo-Saxon and Viking Runes (David Parsons, ed., 1995).

Parsons, David N., Recasting the Runes: The Reform of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc (Runrön 14: 1999).

Pollington, Stephen, Rudiments of Runelore (1995).

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions (Claiborne W. Thompson, ed. Michigan Germanic Studies,
vol. 7 no. 1, 1981).

Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions (J. Knirk, ed., 1994).

Runeninschriften als Quellen interdisziplinärer Forschung: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions in Göttingen, 4-9 August 1995 (Klaus Düwel,ed.,1998).

Runor och ABC: Elva föreläsningar frDn ett symposium i Stockholm varen 1995 (Staffan Nyström, red., 1997).

Runor och Runinskrifter: Second International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions (1987).

Thompson, Claiborne W., Studies in Upplandic Runography (1975).

ARTICLES, ESSAYS, BOOK CHAPTERS, ETC.:

Andersen, Harry (1985). “Three Controversial Runes in the Older Futhark,” Pt. 1: 4 NOWELE 97-110 (1984); Pt. 2: 5 NOWELE 3-22.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1972). “The Runic Inscription from Opedal,” in Studies for Einar Haugen 46-52.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1975). “The Inscription on the Whetstone from Strom,” 9 Visible Language 123-32.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1978). “The Graphemic System of the Older Futhark,” in Linguistic Method: Essays in Honor of Herbert Penzl 287-97 (I. Rauch & G. Carr, eds.).

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1980). “Linguistics and Politics in the 19th Century: The Case of the 15th Rune,” 6 Michigan Germanic Studies 1-16.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1981). “On the Syntax of the Older Runic Inscriptions,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions, 50-60.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1983). “On Reading Runic Inscriptions,” 2 NOWELE 23-40.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1987). “The Oldest Runic Inscriptions in the Light of New Finds and Interpretations,” in Runor och Runinskrifter 17-28.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1988). “On the Mythological Interpretation of the Oldest Runic Inscriptions,” in Languages and Cultures: Studies in Honor of Edgar C. Polomé 43-54.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1989). “The Runes: The Earliest Germanic Writing System,” in The Origins of Writing 137-58.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1993). “The Wesser Runes: Magic or Message?,”
21/22 NOWELE 1-20.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1996). “Runes and Romans on the Rhine,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Frisian Runes and Neighbouring Traditions, Leeuwarden, Netherlands, 26-29 January 1994, 45 ABäG 5-13.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1998). “On Runological and Linguistic Evidence for Dating Runic Inscriptions,” in Runeninschriften als Quellen interdisziplinärer Forschung 150-59.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1999). “`Rengdhi thaer Vingi’ (Am. 4.2) `Vingi Distorted Them”: `Omitted’ Runes – A Question of Typology?,” in Language Change and Typological Variation xxx-xxx (Edgar C. Polomé & Carol F. Justus, eds.). JIES Monograph no. 30-31.

Bammesberger, Alfred (1991). “Ingvaeonic Sound Changes and the Anglo-Frisian Runes,” in Old English Runes and Their Continental Background 389-408.

Bammesberger, Alfred (1994). “Notes on Medial and Final Vowels in the Ruthwell Cross Runic Inscription,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 139-48.

Barnes, Michael P. (1991). “Norwegian, Norn, Icelandic, or West Norse?: The Language of the Maeshowe Inscriptions,” in Festskrift til Ottar Grønvik 70-87 (J. Askedal, et al., eds.).

Barnes, Michael P. (1977). “On Elmer H. Antonsen’s A Concise Grammar of the Older Runic Inscriptions,” 19 Saga-Book 447-57.

Barnes, Michael P. (1987). “The Origins of the Younger futhark: A Reappraisal,” in Runor och Runinskrifter 29-45.

Barnes, Michael P. (1992). “Review Article: New Runic Studies,” 30 Scandinavica 223-32.

Barnes, Michael P. (1994). “On Types of Argumentation in Runic Studies,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 11-29.

Barnes, Michael P. (1995). “Review Article: New Runological Research,” 24 Saga-Book 155-63.

Barnes, Michael P. (1997). “Native and Foreign in the Runes and Runic Writing of Scandinavia,” in Runor och ABC 9-21.

Barnes, Michael P. (1998). “The Transitional Inscriptions,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 448-61.

Barnes, Michael (2005). “Language,” in A Companion to Old Norse- Icelandic Literature and Culture 173-89.

Beck, Heinrich (1981). “A Runological and Iconographical Interpretation of North Sea Germanic Rune-Solidi,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 69-87.

Bosman, A. V. A. J., and T. Loooijenga (1996). “A Runic Inscription from Bergakker (Gelderland), the Netherlands,” 46 ABäG 9-16.

Bremmer, Rolf H. Jr. (1991). “Hermes-Mercury and Woden-Odin as Inventors of Alphabets: A Neglected Parallel,” in Old English Runes and Their Continental Background 409-19.

Buti, Gian Gabriella (1987). “The Eggja Inscription: A Functionalist Approach,” in Runor och Runinskrifter 47-53.

Christiensen, Aksel (1975). “The Jelling Monuments,” 8 Med. Scand. 7-20.

Dahm, Murray (2001). “Re-examining Latin Cursive Elements in Fuþark Development,” 55 ABäG 15-20.

Derolez, René (1968). “A Runic Explicit Ascribed to Eskil, Archbishop of Lund,” 1 Med. Scand. 9-16.

Derolez, René (1981). “The Runic System and Its Cultural Context,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 19-26.

Derolez, René (1987). “Some New Runes and the Problem of Runic Unity,” in Runor och Runinskrifter 55-66.

Derolez, René (1991). “Runica Manuscripta Revisited,” in Old English Runes and Their Continental Background 85-106.

Derolez, René (1998). “On the `Otherness’ of the Anglo-Saxon Runes and the `Perfect Fit’ of the Fuþark,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 103-16.

Düwel, Klaus (1981a). “The Meldorf Fibula and the Origin of Runic Writing,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 8-14.

Düwel, Klaus (1981b). “Runes, Weapons, and Jewelry: A Survey of Some of the Oldest Runic Inscriptions,” 22 Mankind Quarterly 69-91.

Düwel, Klaus (1987). “Some Remarks on a New Inscription from Schleswig,” in Runor och Runinskrifter 73-89.

Düwel, Klaus (2004). “Runic,” in Early Germanic Literature and Culture 120-47 (Brian Murdoch & Malcolm Read, eds.).

Ebel, Else (1981). “The Beginnings of Runic Studies in Germany: A Survey,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 176-84.

Elliott, Ralph W. V. (1957). “Runes, Yews, and Magic,” 32 Speculum 250-61.

Elliott, Ralph W. V. (1983). “Runic Mythology: The Legacy of the Futhark,” 15 Bamberger Beiträge zur englischen Sprachwissenschaft 37-50.

Elliott, Ralph W. V. (1998). “Runes in English Literature: From Cynewulf to Tolkien,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 660-66 (1998).

Fell, Christine (1987). “Old English Semantic Studies and Their Bearing on Rune Names,” in Runor och Runinskrifter 99-109.

Fell, Christine, “Runes and Semantics,” in Old English Runes and Their Continental Background 195-229.

Fell, Christine (1994). “Anglo-Saxon England: A Three-Script Community?,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 119-37.

Fell, Christine E. (2002a). “Wax Tablets of Stone,” in Lastworda Betst 249-63.

Fell, Christine E. (2002b). “Runes and Riddles in Anglo-Saxon England,” in Lastworda Betst 264-77.

Fjellhammer Seim, Karin (1994). “Var futharken en magisk formel i middelalderen? Testing av en hypotese mot innskriffter fra Bryggen i Bergen” [Eng. summ.], in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 279-300.

Fjellhammer Seim, Karin (1998). “Runes and Latin Script: Runic Syllables,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 508-12.

Forster, Leonard (1998). “Thoughts on the Mnemonic Function of Early Systems of Writing,” in Idee: Gestalt: Geschichte. Festschrift Klaus von See 59-62.

Fuglesang, Signe Horn (1998). “Swedish Runestones of the Eleventh Century: Ornament and Dating,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 197-218.

Gosling, Kevin (1991). “Recent Finds from London,” in Old English Runes and Their Continental Background 191-94.

Gustavson, Helmer, & Steven Jörsäter (1981). “Runes and the Computer,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions, 98-105.

Haastrup, Niels (1968). “Runa aettir: generationes notularum,” 1 Med. Scand. 82-84.

Hagland, Jan Ragnar (1998). “Runes as Sources for the Middle Ages,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 619-28.

Halsall, Maureen (1989). “Runes and the Mortal Condition in Old English Poetry,” 88 JEGP 477-86.

Haugen, Einar (1973). “The Dotted Runes: From Parsimony to Plenitude,” in Proceedings of the Seventh Viking Congress 83-92.

Haugen, Einar (1981). “The Youngest Runes: From Oppdal to Waukegan,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 148-74.

Hines, John (1991). “Some Observations on the Runic Inscriptions of Early Anglo-Saxon England,” in Old English Runes and Their Continental Background 61-83.

Hines, John (1998). “Grave Finds with Runic Inscriptions from Great Britain,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 186-96.

Holman, Katherine (1998). “Scandinavian Runic Inscriptions as a Source for the History of the British Isles: The St Paul’s Rune- Stone,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 629-38.

Insley, John, “The Scandinavian Runic Inscriptions of the Older Fuþark and Old English Personal Names,” in Old English Runes and Their Continental Background 309-34 (1991).

Jansson, Sven B. (1981). “Hunting Rune-Stones in Sweden,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 199-213.

Jesch, Judith (1991). “Who Was Hulmkir?,” 106 ANF 125-36.

Jesch, Judith (1994). “Runic Inscriptions and Social History: Some Problems of Method,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 149-62.

Jesch, Judith (1998). “Still Standing in Ågersta: Textuality and Literacy in Late Viking-age Rune Stone Inscriptions,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 462-75.

Johnsen, Ingred Sanness (1981). “Personal Names in Inscriptions from Towns of Medieval Norway,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 119-127.

Johnston, Alan (1997). “All Runes to Me,” in Runor och ABC 93-112.

Klause, Wolfgang, & Klaus Düwel, “Report On a Runic Bibliography,”2 Med. Scand. 160-62 (1969).

Knirk, James E.,”Recently Found Runestones from Toten and Ringerike,” in Proceedings of the Tenth Viking Congress 191-202 (1987).

Knirk, James E., “Runes from Trondheim and a Stanza by Egill Skala-Grímsson,” in Studien zum Altgermanischen. Festschrift Heinrich Beck 411-20 (1994).

Knirk, James E., “Runic Inscriptions Containing Latin in Norway,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 476-507 (1998).

Knirk, James E., et al., “Runes and Runic Inscriptions,” in Medieval Scandinavia: An Encyclopedia 545-55 (1993).

Kratz, Henry, “Was Vamoþ Still Alive? The Rök-stone as an Initiation Memorial,” 11 Med. Scand. 9-29 (1978-79).

Lager, Linn, “Art as a Reflection of Religious Change: The Process of Christianisation as Shown in the Ornamentation on Runestoness,” in Early Medieval Religion 117-32 (Archaeological Rev. from Cambridge 17:2, 2000).

Lager, Linn, “Runestones and the Conversion of Sweden,” in The Cross Goes North 497-508 (2003).

Larsson, Mats G., “Runic Inscriptions as a Source for the History of Settlement,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 639-46 (1998).

Larsson, Patrick (2005). “Runes,” in A Companion to Old Norse- Icelandic Literature and Culture 403-26.

Lehmann, Ruth P. M. (1987). “Ogam / Runes,” in Studies in Honour of René Derolez 293-98.

Liestøl, Aslak, “An Iona Rune Stone and the World of Man and the Isles,” in The Viking Age in the Isle of Man 85-94 (1983).

Liestøl, Aslak, “Correspondence in Runes,” 1 Med. Scand. 17-27 (1968).

Liestøl, Aslak, “The Emergence of the Viking Runes,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 107-116 (1981).

Liestøl, Aslak, “Runic Inscriptions,” in Varangian Problems: Scando-Slavica Supplementum I: The Eastern Connections of the Nordic Peoples in the Viking Period and Early Middle Ages 121-31 (1970).

Liestøl, Aslak, “The Viking Runes: The Transition from the Older to the Younger Futhark,” 20 Saga-Book 247 (1978-81).

Liestøl, Aslak, “`Will You Marry Me?’ Under a Church Floor,” 10 Med. Scand. 35 (1977).

Lönnroth, Lars, “The Riddles of the Rök-Stone: A Structural Approach,” 92 ANF 1-57 (1977).

Looijenga, Tineke, “Yew Wood and Runic Inscriptions in the Frisian Terp-Area,” in Old English Runes and Their Continental Background 335-42 (1991).

Massengale, James, “A Test Study in Runic Dialectology,” in Studies for Einar Haugen 379-88 (1972).

MacLeod, Mindy, “Bandrúnar in Icelandic Sagas,” 52 Scripta Islandica
35-51 (2001).– also in Old Norse Myths, Literature and Society 252-63 (2000).

MacLeod, Mindy, “Bind-Runes in Numerological Rune-Magic,” 56 ABäG 27-40 (2002).

Mees, Bernard, “The Bergakker Inscription and the Beginnings of Dutch,” 56 ABäG 23-26 (2002).

Mees, Bernard, “The North Etruscan Thesis of the Origin of the Runes,” 115 ANF 33-82 (2000).

Meijer, Jan, “Corrections in Viking Age Rune-Stone Inscriptions,” 110 ANF 77-83 (1995).

Meijer, Jan, “Runic Terminology,” 56 ABäG 41-67 (2002).

Meijer, Jan, “The s-Rune in the Viking Age and After,” 115 ANF 23-31 (2000).

Melnikova, Elena A., “New Finds of Scandinavian Runic Inscriptions from the USSR,” in Runor och Runinskrifter 163-73 (1987).

Melnikova, Elena A., “Runic Inscriptions as a Source for the Relation of Northern and Eastern Europe in the Middle Ages,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 647-59 (1998).

Metcalf, David Michael, “Runes and Literacy: Pondering the Evidence of Anglo-Saxon Coins of the Eighth and Ninth Centuries,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 434-38 (1998).

Moberg, Carl-Axel, “Old Runes and New Archaeologists,” in Archaeology and Environment 4: In Honorem Evert Baudou 229-34 (1985).

Moltke, Erik (1981a). “How to Investigate and Reproduce a Runic Inscription,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 186-96.

Moltke, Erik (1981b). “The Origin of the Runes,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 3-7.

Morris, Richard L., “The Lellinge Bracteate’s Salusalu: A Woman’sName,” 99 ANF 6-13 (1984).

Nielsen, Hans Frede, “The Linguistic Status of the Early RunicInscriptions of Scandinavia,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 539-55 (1998).

Nielsen, Hans Frede, “The Undley Bracteate, `Continental Anglian,’and the Early Germanic of Schleswig-Holstein,” in Festskrift til Ottar Grønvik 33-52 (1991).

Nielsen, Karl Martin, “The Numerals in the Kensington Inscription,”in Runor och Runinskrifter 175-83 (1987).

Nielsen, Niels A., “Freyr, Ullr, and the Sparlosa Stone,” 2 Med.Scand. 102-28 (1969).

Nielsen, Niels A., “Notes on Early Runic Poetry,” 3 Med. Scand. 138-41 (1970).

Nilsson, Bruce E., “The Rune-Stone from Mörbylånga: A Complete Interpretation,” 90 ANF 123-26 (1975).

Nilsson, Bruce E., “The Runic `Fish-Amulet’ From Öland: A Solution,”9 Med. Scand. 236-45 (1976).

Odenstedt, Bengt, “A New Theory of the Origin of the Runic Script: Richard L. Morris’s Book, Runic and Mediterranean Epigraphy,” in Old English Runes and Their Continental Background 359-87 (1991a).

Odenstedt, Bengt, “On the Transliteration of the a-Rune in Early English and Frisian Inscriptions,” in Festskrift til Ottar Grønvik 53-69 (1991b).

Page, R. I. (1995a). “Anglo-Saxon Runes and Magic,” in Runes and Runic Inscriptions: Collected Essays on Anglo-Saxon and Viking Runes 105-25.

Page, R. I. (1995b). “Anglo-Saxon Texts in Early Modern Transcripts: 1. The Anglo-Saxon Runic Poem,” in Runes and Runic Inscriptions 197-206 (1995).

Page, R. I. (1983). “The Manx Rune Stones,” in The Viking Age in the Isle of Man 133-46.

Page, R. I., “More Thoughts on Manx Runes,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 129-136 (1981).

Page, R. I., “New Runic Finds in England,” in Runor och Runinskrifter 185-97 (1987).

Page, R. I. (1995c). “The Old English Rune Ear,” in Runes and Runic Inscriptions 71-85.

Page, R. I. (1995d). “The Old English Rune Eoh, Ih, `Yew-Tree’,” in Runes and Runic Inscriptions 133-144.

Page, R. I., “Runes in East Anglia,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 105-17
(1994).

Page, R. I., “Scandinavian Society, 800-1100: The Contribution of Runic Studies,” in Viking Revaluations 145-59 (1993).

Page, R. I., “A Sixteenth Century Runic Manuscript,” in Studies in Honour of René Derolez 384-90 (1987).

Page, R. I. (1995e). “The Use of Double Runes in Old English Inscriptions,” in Runes and Runic Inscriptions 95-104.

Page, Raymond I. (1997). “Runic Writing, Roman Script and the Scriptorium,” in Runor och ABC 119-40 (1997).

Pároli, Teresa, “History, Theology, and Symbolism in the Greater Jelling Stone,” in Studies in Honour of René Derolez 402-417 (1987).

Parsons, David, “Byrhtferth and the Runes of Oxford, St. John’s College, Manuscript 17,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 439-47 (1998).

Peterson, Lena, “A Critical Survey of the Alleged East Germanic Runic Inscriptions in Scandinavia,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 556-75 (1998).

Peterson, Lena, “The Graphemic System of the Staveless Runes,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 223-52 (1994).

Pieper, Peter, “The Bones with Runic Inscriptions from the Lower Weser River: New Results of Scientific Investigations Concerning the Problem: Original(s) or Fake(s),” in Old English Runes and Their Continental Background 343-58 (1991).

Polomé, Edgar, “Beer, Runes and Magic,” 24 JIES 99-105 (1996).

Polomé, Edgar, “The Names of the Runes,” in Old English Runes and Their Continental Background 421-35 (1991).

Roth, Helmut, “New Chronological Aspects of Runic Inscriptions,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 62-67 (1981).

Sawyer, Birgit, “Sigtuna: A Border Town,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 163-77 (1994).

Sawyer, Birgit, “Viking Age Rune-Stones as a Source for Legal History,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 766-77 (1998).

Schwab, Ute, “The Inscription of the Nordendorf Brooch I: A Double Reading in Line III?,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions (1981).

Selinge, Klas-Göran, “The Rune Stones, Barrow, Village and Church at Högby, Ostergötland,” in Runor och Runinskrifter 255-80 (1987).

Spurkland, Terje, “K and B: One Grapheme or Two?,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 269-78 (1994).

Spurkland, Terje, “Runic Inscriptions as Sources for the History of Scandinavian Languages in the Middle Ages.” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 592-600 (1998).

Stiles, Patrick V., “On the Interpretation of Older Runic Swestar on the Opedal Stone,” 3 NOWELE 3-48 (1984).

Stoklund, Marie, “Greenland Runic Inscriptions,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 138-147 (1981).

Stoklund, Marie, “Malt-stenen–en revurdering” [Eng. summ.], in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 179-202 (1994).

Stoklund, Marie, “New Inscriptions from Illerup and Vimose,” in Runor och Runinskrifter 99-109 (1987).

Strid, Jan Paul, “Runic Swedish thegns and drengs,” in Runor och Runinskrifter 301-15 (1987).

Styles, Patrick V., “On the Interpretation of Older Runic Swestar On the Opedal Stone,” 3 NOWELE 3-48 (1984).

Talley, Jeannine E., “Runes, Mandrakes and Gallows,” in Myth in Indo-European Antiquity 157-68 (1974).

Thompson, Claiborne W. (1970). “A Swedish Runographer and a Headless Bishop,” 3 Med. Scand. 50-62.

Thompson, Claiborne W. (1972). “Nonsense Inscriptions in Swedish Uppland,” in Studies for Einar Haugen 522-33.

Thompson, Claiborne W. (1981). “On Transcribing Runic Inscriptions,”in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 89-95.

Thrane, Henrik (1998). “An archaeologist’s View of Runes,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 219-27.

Troeng, John (2003). “A Semitic Origin of Some Runes: An Influential Foreign Presence in Denmark c. AD 200,” 98 Fornvännen 289-305.

Turville-Petre, E. O. G., & A. S. C. Ross (1936). “Agrell’s `Magico-Numerical’ Theory of the Runes,” 97 Folklore 203-13.

Wicker, Nancy L. (1994). “Bracteate Workshops and Runic Literacy:Testimony from the Distribution of Incriptions,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 59-81.

Wicker, Nancy L. (1998). “Production Areas and Workshops for the Manufacture of bracteates,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 253-67 (1998).

Williams, Henrik (1994). “The Non-Representation of Nasals before Obstruents: Spelling Convention or Phonetic Analysis?,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 217-22.

Williams, Henrik (1996). “The Origin of the Runes,” 45 ABäG 211-18.

Williams, Henrik (1997). “The Romans and the Runes – Uses of Writing in Germania,” in Runor och ABC 177-92.

Williams, Henrik (1998). “Runic Inscriptions as Sources of Personal Names,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 601-10.

Woodhouse, Robert (2002). “Sequence in the Older Futhark,” 117 ANF

Further reading

Åhfeldt, Laila Kitzler. Work and Worship: Laser Scanner Analysis of Viking Age Rune Stones . Theses and Papers in Archaeology B:9. Stockholm: Archaeological Research Laboratory, Stockholm University. 2002. Accessed 9 December 2005.

Antonsen, Elmer, H. A Concise Grammar of the Older Runic Inscriptions. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag. 1975. 3484600527

Antonsen, Elmer, H. "The Graphemic System of the Germanic fuþark". Linguistic Method. Essays in Honor of Herbert Penzl. Eds. I. Rauch & G. Carr. The Hague and New York: Mouton. 1979. pp. 287-297. Antonsen, Elmer, H. "The Oldest Runic Inscriptions in the Light of New Finds and Interpretations". Runor och runinskrifter. Föredrag vid Riksantikvarieämbetets och Vitterhetsakademiens symposium 8-11 september 1985 ed. by Helmer Gustavson et al. Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, Konferenser 15. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International. 1987. pp. 17-28.

Antonsen, Elmer, H. "On the Mythological Interpretation of the Oldest Runic Inscriptions". Languages and Cultures. Studies in Honor of Edgar C. Polomé. Trends in Linguistics, Studies and Monographs 36. ed. by M.A. Jazayery and Werner Winter. Berlin: Mouton-De Gruyter. 1988. pp. 43-54. Antonsen, Elmer, H. "On Reading Runic Inscriptions". North-Western European Language Evolution (NOWELE) 2 (1983) pp. 23-40.

Antonsen, Elmer, H. "The Runes. The Earliest Germanic Writing System". The Origins of Writing. Ed. Wayne M. Senar. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press. 1989. pp. 137-158. Antonsen, Elmer, H. "Toward a New Runic Grammar". The Nordic Languages and Modern Linguistics. Proceedings of the International Conference of Nordic and General Linguistics University of Iceland, Reykjavík July 6-11, 1969. Ed. Hreinn Benediktsson. Reykjavík: Visindefelag Islendinga. 1970. pp. 313-321.

Bammesberger, Alfred. "The Development of the Runic Script and Its Relationship to Germanic Phonological History" Language Change and Language Structure. Older Germanic Languages in a Comparative Perspective. Eds. Toril Swan, Endre Mørck, and Olaf Jansen Westwik. Trends in Linguistics, Studies and Monographs 73. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 1994. pp. 1-25.

Barnes, Michael, P. "The Origins of the Younger fuþark - A Reappraisal". Runor och runinskrifter. Föredrag vid Riksantikvarieämbetets och Vitterhetsakademiens symposium 8-11 september 1985 ed. by Helmer Gustavson et al. Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, Konferenser 15. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International. 1987. pp. 29-45.

Brodeur, Arthur, G. "The Riddle of the Runes" University of California Publications in English 3 (1932), pp. 1-15.

Derolez, René. "The Runic System and its Cultural Context". Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions. Michigan Germanic Studies 7:1. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 1981. pp. 19-26.

Duwel, Klaus. Runenkunde. 2nd ed. Stuttgart: Metzler. 1983. Ellegard, Alvar, "Who were the Eruli?" Scandia 53 (1987) pp 5-34.
ErilaR or irilaR are terms used for runic writers using the Elder Futhark (pre Viking Age), although the term may be related to the name of a Germanic tribe, the Heruli, as well.

Freij, Henry. "Tracing a Rune-Carver by Groove Profile and Cut-Marks" Norwegian Archaeological Review 23 (1990). pp. 150-152.

Haugen, Einar. "The Dotted Runes. From Parsimony to Plenitude". Proceedings of the Seventh Viking Congress, Dublin 15-21 August 1973. Eds. Bo Almqvist and David Greene. London: Viking Society for Northern Research. 1976. pp. 83-92. Haugen, Einar. "On the Parsimony of the Younger Fuþark". Festschrift für Konstantin Reichardt. Ed. Christian Gellinek. Bern-München: Francke 1969. pp. 51-58.

Jansson, Sven. Swedish Vikings in England: The Evidence of the Rune Stones. The Dorothea Coke Memorial Lecture in Northern Studies delivered 11 March 1965 at University College London. London: H.K. Lewis. 1966.

Jesch, Judith. "Runic Inscriptions and Social History. Some Problems of Method" Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions. Grindaheim, Norway, 8-12 August 1990. Ed. James E. Knirk, Runrön 9. Runologiska bidrag utgivna av Institutionen för nordiska språk vid Uppsala universitet. Uppsala: 1994. pp. 149-162.

Kniezsa, Veronika. "The Orthographic Aspect of the Runes". Historical Linguistics and Philology. Ed. Jacek Fisiak. Trends in Linguistics, Studies and Monographs 46. Berlin and New York: 1990. pp. 245-259.

Knirk, James E., Marie Stoklund, and Elisabeth Svärdström. "Runes and Runic Inscriptions." Medieval Scandinavia: An Encyclopedia. ed. Phillip Pulsiano. New York: Garland. 1993. pp. 545-555. Liestøl, Aslak. "The Emergence of the Viking runes" Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions. Michigan Germanic Studies 7.1. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 1981. pp. 107-118.

Liestøl, Aslak. "The Literate Vikings" Proceedings of the Sixth Viking Congress. Uppsala 3-10 August. Bonäs, Dalarna 10-12 August 1969. Eds. Peter Foote and Dag Strömbäck. Uppsala: Almqvist and Wiksells Boktryckeri AB. 1971. pp. 69-78.

Liestøl, Aslak. "The Viking runes: The Transition from the Older to the Younger Fuþark" Saga-Book of the Viking Society for Northern Research XX:4, London 1981, pp. 247-266. (G 88, Rök, DR 239, DR Hedeby träpinne 1.

Moltke, Erik. "How To Investigate and Reproduce a Runic Inscription" Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions. Michigan Germanic Studies 7.1. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 1981. pp. 186-198.

Ohlsson, Stig Örjan. "Why Didn't the Vikings Just Go On Writing as their Ancestors Did? A Survey of the Runic Tradition, with Emphasis on the Break Between Older and Younger Futhark". Medeltida skrift- och språn ett symposium i Stockholm våren 1992. Ed. Inger Lindell. Runica et mediævalia, Opuscula 2. Stockholm: 1994. pp. 79-102.

Owen, Francis. "Alliteration in the Runic Inscriptions" Modern Philology 25 (1928). pp. 397-408. Page, Raymond I. Runes. Reading the Past Vol 4. University of California Press. 1989. Page, Raymond I. "Runes and Non-Runes" Medieval Literature and Civilization. Studies in Memory of G.N. Garmonsway . Eds. D.A. Pearsall and R.A. Waldron. London: Athlone Press. 1969. pp. 28-54. Page, Raymond I. Runes and Runic Inscriptions: Collected Essays on Anglo-Saxon and Viking Runes . Woodbridge: Boydell Press. 1998. Page, Raymond I. "Runic Links across the North Sea in the Pre-Viking Age". Beretning fra Fjerde tværfaglige vikingesymposium. Eds. H. Bekker-Nielsen and H.F. Nielsen. Odense: Odense Universitet, Forlaget Hikiun. 1985. pp. 31-49.

Runor och runinskrifter. Kungl Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, Konferenser 15. Stockholm: Statens historiska museum. 1980.
A collection of articles, some in English, dealing with runes and runic inscriptions.

Stoklund, Marie. "Greenland Runes. Isolation or Cultural Contact?" The Viking Age in Caithness, Orkney and the North Atlantic, Red. C. Batey et al. Edinburgh 1993, pp. 528-543.

Stoklund, Marie. "Greenland Runic Inscriptions" Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions. Michigan Germanic Studies 7.1. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 1981. pp. 138-148.

Stromback, Dag. The Epiphany in Runic Art: the Dynna and Sika Stones. London: University College London. 1970. Thompson, Claiborne W. "On Transcribing Runic Inscriptions". Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions. Michigan Germanic Studies 7.1. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 1981. pp. 89-97.

Thompson, Claiborne W. "'Rune' and 'Runic'". Scandinavica 16 (1977). pp. 23-28.

Wicker, Nancy, L. "Bracteate Workshops and Runic Literacy" Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions. Grindaheim, Norway, 8-12 August 1990. Ed. James E. Knirk, Runrön 9. Runologiska bidrag utgivna av Institutionen för nordiska språk vid Uppsala

Barnes, Michael, P. The Runic Inscriptions of Maeshowe, Orkney . Runrön 8. Uppsala: Institutionen fur nordiska sprak, Uppsala Universitet. 1994. universitet. Uppsala: 1994. pp. 59-81.

Hills, Catherine. "The Archaeological Context of Runic Finds". Old English Runes and their Continental Background Ed. Alfred Bammesberger. Heidelberg: C. Winter. 1991. pp. 41-59. Olsen, Magnus. "Runic Inscriptions in Great Britain, Ireland, and the Isle of Man," Viking Antiquities in Great Britain and Ireland. Part 6. ed. Haakon Shetelig. Oslo: 1954. pp. 151-233.

Page, Raymond I. An Introduction to English Runes. London: 1973.

Page, Raymond I. "Scandinavian Runes in the British Isles". Popular Archaeology 8:6 (July 1987). pp. 35-39.

Polomé, Edgar. "The Names of the Runes". Old English Runes and their Continental Background Ed. Alfred Bammesberger. Heidelberg: C. Winter. 1991. pp. 421-438.

Wilson, David M. "Manx Memorial Stones of the Viking Period." Saga Book of the Viking Society for Northern Research 18 (1970-1971) pp. 1-18.

Wilson, David M. The Viking Age in the Isle of Man - the Archaeological Evidence. C.C. Rafn Lecture No. 3. Odense. 1974.

Arwidsson, Greta. "Viking Society in Central Sweden. Traditions, Organization and Economy". The Vikings. Proceedings of the Symposium of Faculty of Arts of Uppsala University June 6-9, 1977. Eds. Thorsten Andersson and Karl Inge Sandred. Uppsala: 1978. pp. 154-160.

Jansson, Sven B. F. Runes in Sweden. trans Peter Foote. Stockholm: Gidlunds. 1987.

Soderburg, Sven and Erik Brate, eds. Sveriges runinskrifter: I. Olands runinskrifter. Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antivitetes akademien. 1900-1906.

Brate, Erik, ed. Sveriges runinskrifter: II. Osterhotlands runinskrifter. Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antivitetes akademien. 1911-1918.

Brate, Erik, and Elias Wessen eds. Sveriges runinskrifter: III. Sodermanlands runinskrifter. Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antivitetes akademien. 1924-1936.

Kinander, Ragnar, ed. Sveriges runinskrifter: IV. Smalands runinskrifter. Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antivitetes akademien. 1935-1961.

Jungner, Hugo and Wlisabeth Svardstrom, eds. Sveriges runinskrifter: V. Vastergotlands runinskrifter. Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antivitetes akademien. 1940-1971.

Wessen, Elias and Sven B.F. Jansson, eds. Sveriges runinskrifter: VI-IX. Upplands runinskrifter. Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antivitetes akademien. 1940-1958.

Jansson, Sven B.F. The Runes of Sweden. New York: Bedminster Press. 1962.

Jansson, Sven B.F., Elias Wessen and Wlisabeth Svardstrom, eds. Sveriges runinskrifter: XI-XII. Gotlands runinskrifter. Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antivitetes akademien. 1962-1978.

Jansson, Sven B.F., ed. Sveriges runinskrifter: XIII. Vastmanlands runinskrifter. Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antivitetes akademien. 1964.

Jansson, Sven B.F., ed. Sveriges runinskrifter: XIV. Narkes runinskrifter. Varmlands runeinskrifter. Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antivitetes akademien. 1975-1978.

Jansson, Sven B.F., ed. Sveriges runinskrifter: XV. Gastriklands runinskrifter. Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antivitetes akademien. 1981.

Sawyer, Birgit. "The Erection of Rune-stones in Viking-Age Scandinavia; The Political Background". The Audience of the Sagas. The Eight International Saga Conference, Preprints. Bd 2, August 11-17, 1991 Gothenburg University, Göteborg: 1991. pp. 233-242.

Sawyer, Birgit. Property and Inheritance in Viking Scandinavia: The Runic Evidence. Occasional Papers on Medieval Topics, 2. Alingsås: Viktoria Bokforlag. 1988.

Sawyer, Birgit. "Viking-Age Rune-Stones as a Crisis Symptom" Norwegian Archaeological Review 24:2 (1991). pp. 97-112.

Sawyer, Birgit. "Sigtuna - A Border Town". Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions. Grindaheim, Norway, 8-12 August 1990. Ed. James E. Knirk, Runrön 9. Runologiska bidrag utgivna av Institutionen för nordiska språk vid Uppsala universitet. Uppsala: 1994. pp. 163-177.

Strid, Jan P. "Runic Swedish Thegns and Drengs". Runor och runinskrifter. Föredrag vid Riksantikvarieämbetets och Vitterhetsakademiens symposium 8-11 september 1985 ed. by Helmer Gustavson et al. Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, Konferenser 15. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International. 1987. pp. 301-316.

Thompson, Claiborne W. "Nonsense Inscriptions in Swedish Uppland". Studies for Einar Haugen, Presented by Friends and Colleagues. Eds. Einar Ingvald Haugen and Evelyn Scherabon Firchow. The Hague: Mouton. 1972. pp. 522-534.

Thompson, Claiborne W. Studies in Upplandic Runography. Austin: University of Texas Press. 1975.

Thompson, Claiborne W. "A Swedish Runographer and a Headless Bishop" Medieval Scandinavia 3 (1970). pp. 50-62.

Thompson, Claiborne W. "Öpir's Teacher". FV 67 (1972). pp. 16-19.

Barnes, Michael, P. "The New Runic Finds from Illerup and the Question of the Twenty Second Rune". Saga och Sed: Kungl. Gustav Adolfs Akademiens Årsbok 1984. Uppsala: 1986. pp. 59-76.

Jacobsen, Lis and Erik Moltke. Danmarks runeindskrifter. Copenhagen: Einar Munksgarrd. 1941-1942. The most comprehensive work on Danish runic inscriptions and monuments.

Moltke, Erik. "Medieval Rune-Amulets in Denmark" Acta Ethnologica 3 (1938). pp. 116-147.

Moltke, Erik. Runes and Their Origin: Denmark and Elsewhere. Trans. by Peter G. Foote. Copenhagen: National Museum of Denmark, Nationalmuseets Forlag. 1985.

Randsborg, Klavs. "Runestones and People in a Changing Society". The Viking Age in Denmark: The Formation of a State . New York: St. Martin's Press. 1980. pp. 25-44.

Knirk, James, E. "Learning to Write with Runes in Medieval Norway" Medeltida skrift- och språn ett symposium i Stockholm våren 1992. Ed. Inger Lindell. Runica et mediævalia, Opuscula 2. Stockholm: 1994. pp. 169-212.

Liestøl, Aslak. "Correspondence in Runes" Medieval Scandinavia 1 (1968). pp. 17-27.

Olsen, Magnus and Aslak Liestol, eds. Norges innskrifter med de yngre runer. Oslo: Norsk Historisk Kjeldeskrift-Institutt, 1941-1990. The catalog of Norwegian runic inscriptions and monuments.

Melnikova, Elena A. "New Finds of Scandinavian Runic Inscriptions from the USSR" Runor och runinskrifter. Föredrag vid Riksantikvarieämbetets och Vitterhetsakademiens symposium 8-11 september 1985 ed. by Helmer Gustavson et al. Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, Konferenser 15. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International. 1987. pp. 163-173.

Melnikova, Elena A. "Scandinavian Runic Inscriptions as a Source for the History of Eastern Europe" Les Pays du Nord et Byzance: Scandinavie et Byzance. Actes du colloque d'Upsal 10-22 avril 1979. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Gigura, Nova Series, 19. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell. 1981. pp. 169-173.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (2001). “Book Review: Recasting the Runes: The Reform of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc, by David N. Parsons,” 100 JEGP 301-02.
Nielsen, Hans Frede (2003). “Review Article: Elmer H. Antonsen, Runes and Germanic Linguistics,” 42 NOWELE 115-19.
O’Donoghue, Heather (1994). “Book Review: Old English Runes and Their Continental Background,” 45 Review of English Studies 544-45.
Willson, Kendra (2004). “Review Article: Mindy MacLeod, Bind-Runes: An Investigation of Ligatures in Runic Epigraphy,” 45 NOWELE 89–96.